Centro de Ojos de La Coruña: Professionalism and advance technology to server their eyes

Over 70% of the quality information we receive proceeds from vision

 

Prevent blindness and low vision is possible
  Regular eye tests can prevent over 50% of cases of blindness and low vision

In Spain there are 900,000 people with visual disabilities and 70,000 with legal blindness (see less than 10% of normal) and his assistance involves about 360 million euros in direct and indirect costs.

Periodic reviews and the development of modern diagnostic techniques allow us to early detect eye problems, a few years ago this was unthinkable.

You need to take preventive measures especially in these risk groups:

  • Children
  • Over 45 years
  • Macular degeneration (DMAE)
  • Diabetes
  • High myopia (greater than 8 diopters)
  • Relatives with eye diseases, low vision or blindness

The Vision 2020 project under the sloganRight to Seeis a global initiative (World Health Organization, International Agency for Prevention of Blindness and several NGOs, international organizations, professionals and institutions for the care of the eyes) who tries, through early diagnosis, to avoid blindness in all cases where it would be preventable (diabetes, macular degeneration associated with age, degenerative myopia and glaucoma) and considers that this could be done with more than 15 millions of people from now until 2020.

 

Children
 

There are eye problems in children that if they were treated it would prevent future vision limitations in adulthood

At birth, the baby closes the lid to a bright light, around 8 weeks old, is able to fixate his vision into objects and 10-12 weeks, is able to follow with his eyes an object. Thereafter, the child develops visual acuity until 100% of adult vision. He must get it before 8 years of age.

It is important to conduct a full review at the 3 years of age or earlier, especially if there's a family history of any ocular disorder or is suspected to have a birth or linked to prematurity problem, and annually after that age.

If not treated before 6 or 8 years when the visual system development is completed, eye problems can persist and affect the working and social life of the future adult that can no longer correct the problem.

Refractive errors such as nearsightedness, farsightedness or astigmatism are behind many of drop outs in childhood Among the several factors that can influence a good school performance, perhaps the most important is the vision, for it is the means by which the child receives 80-90% of the information. That is why it is necessary to perform a complete eye exam prior to the beginning of the school year in order to detect any abnormalities

Amblyopia or "lazy eye"affects up to 4% of children of school age Constitutes the most frequent cause of low vision in this age and is easily preventable or treatable if done on time. It occurs when the visual maturation of one or both eyes for some reason (refractive error, strabismus or other causes) stops. It has a very effective treatment if corrected in time (before 5-6años) properly, using the correct child graduation cycloplegic (dilating the pupil) and occlusion or other penalty on the dominant eye.

All children should undergo ophthalmologic examination to rule out amblyopia (lazy eye) before 3 years of age and then annually until age 10, provided everything is normal.

 

Over 40 years
  An annual review is key to prevention

The presbyopia is an example of how our vision can begin to be influenced by the aging of some ocular structures, such as crystalline lens, our natural lens, which begins to lose elasticity and accommodation.

Moreover, at this stage may also begin to take shape more serious eye diseases related to aging, such as glaucoma or macular degeneration ARMD or other diseases such as diabetic retinopathy.

 

Over 60 years
  Age as a risk factor

17% of the population is over 65 years and it is estimated that this number will double by 2050.

From the 60 or 65 preventive measures to make an early diagnosis of diseases that do not offer symptoms in the early stages. These diseases can only be detected at an eye review. Among these blinding diseases age related maculopathy, glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.

The more frequent age-related disease is the cataract. Other diseases such as glaucoma or macular degeneration (ARMD) are among the leading causes of blindness, but if treated early, can be controlled and not a decisive influence on our daily activities.

 

Family history
  Genetic diagnostic and periodic reviews

A large number of eye diseases are genetic. Knowing the vision problems of parents, grandparents and other relatives and act accordingly, taking ophthalmologic examinations, is a good measure to prevent certain eye diseases that could eventually stop us in our daily activities

In addition, the ocular genetic analysis, allows lay the groundwork for future gene therapies to apply that in the next decade, capable of reducing eye diseases that currently have no cure.
 

Diabetes
  Ophthalmologic monitoring, metabolic control and avoid snuff

More than half of people with diabetes for more than 15 years have signs of diabetic retinopathy, a leading cause of severe vision loss in working age in developed countries.

Good control of diabetes and regular eye examinations delay the onset of retinopathy and prevent its worst forms.

 

High myopia
 

40% of myopic with over 8 diopters at risk of suffering some kind of problem in the retina

About 2% of the population suffer from high myopia (more than 8 diopters) and have a greater predisposition to certain eye diseases such as glaucoma or cataracts, and especially pathologies related to the retina, as detachment, macular degeneration by atrophy plates, or vessel growth beneath, macular hole or separation of the layers of the retina (retinoschisis).

 

Cataract
 

Day surgery under topical local anesthesia, minimal incisions without sutures and foldable intraocular lenses mono- or multifocal to restore and even improve vision

Cataract remains the cause of low vision and blindness more common in the world, especially in developing countries.

Produced by progressive opacification (due to aging) of the crystalline lens, which is the natural lens of the eye that normally is transparent and helps focus the image on the retina.

60-70% of the population over 65-70 years have some type of cataract and cataract surgery is the most commonly performed operation in this age group.

Unlike other diseases like glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy, it is a cause of blindness that can be solved

Today, thanks to the techniques and topical local anesthesia, advanced phacoemulsification, minimum sutureless incisions and foldable intraocular lenses, including multifocal, it is possible not only to restore vision after cataract but also eliminate previous defects such as myopia , farsightedness, astigmatism or presbyopia or eyestrain.

 

Glaucoma
 

Known as "the thief of sight" or the "silent blindness" This blindness is preventable if diagnosed and treated early

Glaucoma is a disease that causes progressive atrophy of the optic nerve, usually related to a chronic increase in ocular tension, and not treated in time, leads to irreversible blindness.

Fundamentally affects the visual field (what we see around, which allows us to orient ourselves or dodge obstacles) progressively from the periphery to the center. So it is asymptomatic until advanced stages of the disease, so it is known as the "silent blindness" or "thief of sight".

This is one of the most frequent causes of irreversible blindness, affecting up to 5% of the population above 70 and 12% over 80.

More than 70,000 people suffer in Galicia and 50% do not know for not having consult with an ophthalmologist and not have checked eye presure.

It is estimated that in only 10 years there will be a 30% increase in patients.

Everyone over 40 should check their eye presure once a year and have to be especially careful those with a family history of blindness and glaucoma.

We have high resolution diagnostic tools (Computerized perimetry, and study of the fiber layer and optic nerve ganglion cells by optical coherence tomography) for early diagnosis and a therapeutic arsenal with both eye drops and lasers and different types of surgery to try to control glaucoma and prevent blindness

 

  Normal vision.
  The same scene viewed by a person with glaucoma.

 

 

Macular degeneration (ARMD)
 

Balanced diet, antioxidant supplements in certain cases, good quality sun protection sunglasses, avoid smoking and go to the ophthalmologist periodically or urgently if sensing distortion or a spot in the center of the visual field

The macula is the central area of the retina through which we discriminate in more detail what we see or where to turn our gaze (allows us to read, recognize faces, drive etc)

In Western countries is the cause of legal blindness (less than 10% of visual acuity) most common in people over 65 years

In Galicia over 40,000 people have ARMD

There are two basic types of ARMD: dry or atrophic (deterioration of the macula and that causes slow and progressive loss of central vision) and wet (growth of pathological vessels that may ooze or bleed under the macula and suddenly provoke lose vision or make it very distorted).

Today it is possible to slow the development of certain types of wet AMD primarily through new antiangiogenic drugs.

Early treatment in these cases is a priority to achieve good results

 

How Amsler grid is normally seen

How is seen if you  have ARMD

 

Diabetic retinopathy
 

Metabolic control, avoiding obesity, blood pressure control, moderate exercise, and regular visits to the ophthalmologist at least once a year if not notice any visual problem

In Galicia over 45,000 people have retinal disorders caused by diabetes

Diabetic retinopathyis the ocular expression (retinal) of diabetic microangiopathy. Approximately 2% of the population is diabetic and the disease affects nearly 50% of patients after 15 years of being diabetic, constituting a major cause of irreversible bilateral blindness in our environment.

Its appearance depends both on the duration of the disease and the degree of metabolic control is done in the early years since diagnosis of diabetes.

Once retinopathy instituted the main effective treatment available is the argon laser, with which, used as a "firewall", to try to halt the disease's progress.

Therefore, the best treatment of diabetic retinopathy is the correct metabolic disease control and regular monitoring (annually if all is normal) of the fundus, by the ophthalmologist to make a early indication of the argon laser therapy.

 

Contact lenses
 

There are different types of lenses, and it is important to select the best fit to the visual needs of each person and their motivations

  • SoftThey are the best known and used to compensate for moderate refractive errors in patients with myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.
  • Rigid: Are smaller, harder and therefore less flexible than the soft lenses. They are used for very high astigmatism or corneal irregularity.
  • Hybrid: Are a mixture of the two previous types and are used when it is not possible to adapt a rigid lens because the patient does not tolerate, does not focuses correctly or misses peripheral corneal irregularities.

 

Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation on eye
  Adequate protection of the skin of the face using sunscreen and eyes with good quality homologated sunglasses or a simple hat help prevent most processes linked to ultraviolet radiation

Ultraviolet radiation is harmful to both the external structures that protect the eyes and eyelids (regarding skin cancer) or conjunctiva (degeneration and pterygium), and for the internal and the crystalline lens (cataract) or retina (age related macular degeneration).

Its action starts during childhood and is a cumulative damage is already manifest in adult or later age.